Garden diary

Autumn breaks

Autumn has been slowly starting to assert herself here at Allt-y-bela with cooler mornings and leaves beginning to adopt their autumnal guise. The late afternoon light, low and slanting through the trees of the wooded hillsides, has been really quite magical and has handed even a very modest photographer like myself some great opportunities to capture the garden in dramatic light.

What we have lacked however is the chill in the air which autumn usually brings or indeed any rain to speak of. It's been well documented that September was the driest on record even here in Wales where rainfall tends to be above the national average. In fact a couple of days last week felt more like August than they did the beginning of October, with the lawns drying out and blue skies stretching across the valley.

As autumn begins to change the pace of garden life I have found the space and time to think about jobs which have seemed beyond my grasp in recent months. The one which I found time for last week was seed collecting! Now, let me start by being very honest; it's rather late in the season to be starting to think about seed collecting, and I have missed out on an awful lot of potential seed, but that said there are still plants in the garden with ripening seed still and I have been collecting those few over the past week or so.

A few weeks ago we had the last of our four part garden course here on 'The Making of the Garden'. The course has followed the garden through the seasons and has led the participants through the seasonal jobs which they can do in their own garden. As a special treat for the last day we had a talk by Marina Christopher from Pheonix Perennial Plants - an experienced nursery women who grows a fantastic range of plants from her nursery in Hampshire.

Marina took us through some of her tips for seed collecting including how to process and store seed. Spurred on by her inspirational talk I took to the garden to collect seed last week. One of the key plants Arne wanted seed from was the black Hollyhock that grows amongst the cobbles in the front courtyard. Its black blooms and lush green foliage contrast beautifully against the golden ocre of the house. One of the joys of seed collecting is anticipating the perfect time to harvest but you can of course cut the flowering stems a little early and let the seed ripen in a cool dry place with good airflow letting the seed shed naturally into a paper bag or onto a sheet of paper. I prefer, where possible, to let the seed ripen naturally on the plant and timing, therefore, is key. One day missed and the seed may be gone.

Hollyhock seeds are things of beauty; arranged like segments of an orange around a central point they have the appearance of a flying saucer held within a velvety casing that holds together even after the seed has been stripped out.

Another target were the great architectural spikes of Digitalis ferruginea that have been adding structure to the herbaceous beds ever since their blooms finished earlier in the summer. Ferruginea, meaning rusty, is a species I hadn't come across until I started working at Allt-y-bela but it is one certainly worth hunting out; the leaves are a strong, glossy dark green and the flowering spikes which rise from the basal rosette are strong, seldom require staking and hold a multitude of small copper, slightly hairly flowers, which are attractive to pollinators.

When collecting seed it is very important to separate the seed from the chaff. Often the chaff contains inhibitors which stop the seed germinating; Marina advises that you put your seeds into a shallow bowl and blow the chaff off, the seed usually being heavier than the chaff.

Seed collecting is such a rewarding thing to do. You get to bulk up your supply of plants for no cost at all, but more than that you get the satisfaction of seeing plants grow in your garden from seeds you have collected yourself and is a great way to exchange plants with friends. It's worth remembering that not all plants come 'true' from seed, meaning that the crossing in pollination will lead to differences in the offspring, however you may end up with something really special indeed that nobody else has. The reward is in the anticipation of that first flower next year.

As I write this today the rain has finally come and the river is flowing again, maybe autumn has now finally arrived!

Words: Steve Lannin, Gardener at Allt-y-bela

Photos: Britt Willoughby Dyer


Clover and crane flies

One of the challenges of writing a weekly diary is that very often little has changed from one week to the next and this represents something of a quandary. Last week I had a busy previous week for inspiration; we had one of our garden courses at Allt-y-bela, a tour the next day and then the planting of the bulbs began, I was spoilt for choice as to what to write about. This week is a little different however, I'm still planting the bulbs I spoke about last week and other than mowing the lawns and generally keeping the garden looking tidy there really isn't much to tell.

With that in mind, instead of talking about autumn, which would be the obvious choice given that it was the autumn equinox this week, I thought I might share something a little more personal.

Gardening often allows you great chunks of time in which it is just you and your immediate surroundings for company. The job you are undertaking becomes almost automatic and what you are left with is space and time to think and be. I believe this is one of the reasons that gardening can be such good therapy for those whose life has gotten on top of them.

One of the real joys I find comes from observing the life that exists around us largely unseen amidst our hurry to get on with the numberless chores that comprise our day. Birds, insects, creatures large and small and of course plants are all hustling at great pace through their days too, often locked into life and death struggles which can put a gardener's work into perspective.

Now, I don't want to give you the impression that I spend my days hiding in a corner of the garden lying on my stomach watching beetles and crane flies, as lovely as that would be! But when you spend several days crawling around planting thousands of bulbs into grassland you really can't fail to notice the stunning and often bewildering diversity that exists within the confines of the average garden.

As an example to all of this; whilst I was planting Crocus 'Prince Claus' into the bulb lawn at the back of the house, it was the red clover that particularly caught my attention. The beauty of the blooms and the diversity of their colour, size and form was breathtaking. That, coupled with the various stages of flowering and going to seed, inspired me to write this diary entry, and to share with you the hidden world we take for granted.

I know that I'm very lucky to work in a gorgeous environment and also to have the kind of job that allows time for such thoughts, and that most people have neither luxury most of the time. I would encourage you however to set yourself the challenge of spending a little time observing nothing in particular in your own garden. If possible avoid big distracting blooms and look for a change in what appears to be the plain green background of the garden, maybe a native hedge, or some scrub land, or even a lawn.  You will find plenty to interest you, and will probably come away with enough questions to keep you googling for some considerable time after!

Much of the beauty in a garden is found in its simplicity and natural elegance. All of this inspiration came from quiet observation of the natural world; if you are seeking inspiration head straight to the source, I guarantee you won't regret it!

Words: Steve Lannin, Gardener at Allt-y-bela

Photos: Britt Willoughby Dyer


Snake's heads in the grass

With autumn now well and truly in the air our minds as gardeners start to shift towards next spring. Maybe it's a delaying tactic which encourages us to look beyond the imminent winter and the difficult weather it invariably brings, but it is also the time to be planting spring and summer flowering bulbs.

Most garden centres now stock quite a broad range of bulbs both suitable for borders and also for naturalising into grassland. It's surprising to me as a professional gardener to see so many of the varieties used in historic houses up and down the country so readily available to buy at local garden centres and nurseries. In fact this great egalitarianism represents something of a dilemma for the gardener; do you search ever more widely for new varieties which can't be so easily found, or do you embrace the range of bulbs which is now fairly easily available to all?

Here at Allt-y-bela we are taking the middle line. We are planting great bulbs which are available to all alongside some which you may not have seen before.

The naturalising of bulbs into the margins of a garden is a great way to add a sense of age. Here at Allt-y-bela it is a process that Arne has undertaken right from the start of his time here. Over the years he has planted tens of thousands of snowdrops and daffodils into the areas towards the edge of the garden.

Over the last few days I have started adding another layer to this spring bulb matrix by planting 3,000 snake's head fritillaries (Fritillaria meleagris) into the common and the orchard. These amazing flowers have chequer board like patternation on the flowers and in such numbers form a carpet in mid March, quite unlike anything else. These bulbs must be planted as fresh as possible so if you do go and buy some then make sure they are planted out as soon as you can.

We are also planting Iris 'Autumn Princess' into the common to give us a splash of orange later in the season. We have planted a range of orange flowered plants in the garden which reflect the distinctive colour of the house, and this relatively small iris (50-65cm) should be a great eye-catcher in amongst the long grasses before they are cut down later in the spring. And up amongst the trees we are planting Fritillaria imperialis 'Aurora', a deep orange/red variety which will act as beacons of colour under the dappled light through the alders.

In addition, we are planting white autumn crocus (Colchicum speciosum 'Album') under some of the trees around the streamside and the common but these will not flower until this time next year. They will add a great late burst of colour alongside the autumn flowering cyclamen we planted into the Courtyard last week.

On the back lawn we are adding Crocus 'Prince Claus' to the spring bulb meadow. 'Prince Claus' is a stunning white Crocus with purple striping to the outside of the petals. It is a bunch-flowering crocus which quickly forms into drifts.

On the margins of the driveway we are again planting orange; this time to act as a teaser until the house comes into view; Tulipa whittallii major is a very beautiful species tulip with an almost bi-colour appearance of deep orange and copper. It has a much darker base and should sit beautifully against the purposefully rough grass approach.

If you are thinking of naturalising bulbs in grass it is worth remembering that the flowering period of the bulbs will restrict your mowing regime. If you are planting crocus in a lawn then there will be almost no disruption to mowing as the bulbs will have flowered and died back before the main mowing gets underway in the spring. If, like us, you are planting snake's head fritillaries then you will be unable to mow the lawn much before mid April.

I would also suggest that if you intend to naturalise bulbs that you stick to a relatively small number of species and use large numbers and scale to give the best effect.

Whatever you choose to do, planting perennial bulbs is fantastic value in my opinion. They require very minimal care and will serve the garden year in year out for a generation or more and all for just a couple of pounds spent and very minimal effort to plant. On that note I'd better get back to planting!

Words: Steve Lannin, Gardener at Allt-y-bela

Photos: Britt Willoughby Dyer and William Collinson


Autumn flowering cyclamen

As the chill in the morning air is becoming more common, our thoughts at Allt-y-bela are turning towards autumn flowers and spring bulbs. Allt-y-bela is not just Arne's home, it is a proving ground for new plants and ideas and as such we are constantly reviewing the performance of the beds, borders and gardens and making adjustments and changes.

The courtyard at Allt-y-bela was conceived as a jewel box of unusual and choice plants framed by box topiary, roses and pleached crab apples. Recently, self-set dark leafed Ajuga has begun to carpet some of the ground at one end and although the effect is rather striking we have decided to remove it and re-focus attention on bulbs. With this in mind we have purchased some autumn flowering cyclamen (Cyclamen hederifolium) to add some much needed autumn colour.

Autumn flowering cyclamen flower before the leaves emerge and have a huge diversity of colour in the flowers so buying them now, in flower, is a good way of ensuring that you achieve the effect you are looking for. We visited a local nursery and were able to choose from a huge tonal variety of plants. It takes a little time before you tune in to the differences between the plants but it really is essential to take a little time over choosing them. We came away with about 150 new cyclamen, not only for the courtyard but also for other areas of the garden, each having been selected for their individual attributes.

The original plan was to use a combination of pinks and whites with the emphasis on the pinks but after further thought we decided to use pinks in the courtyard and save the whites for the edges of the garden where their brightness will draw the eye out.

The colour range within the pinks is quite extraordinary ranging from the very dark fuchsia to incredibly pale pink via a plethora of clear bright tones and dirtier colours. All have a variety of veining and there are form and habit differences from plant to plant. We sought to select a range which represents some of the diversity present within the species.

When planting any bulbs or corms which you hope to naturalise it is important to modulate your planting in order to replicate the way that plant communities develop and here in the courtyard we tried to create this effect. I'm looking forward now to spring to see the other bulbs in the garden for the very first time and to see how this addition adds to the year round effect. It certainly looks very striking today in the autumn sunlight.

Words: Steve Lannin, Gardener at Allt-y-bela

Photos: Britt Willoughby Dyer

Placing the plants in positionTroweling a holeTurning out the potTeasing the roots before plantingPlanting out cyclamenCyclamen in situClose up cyclamenThrough the topiaryView down the herb garden path with cyclamen

Naturalising crevice-loving ferns

The natural theatre at Allt-y-bela was constructed back in the spring and is a combination of sculpted grass banks and dry stone walling. The river which snakes through the grounds at the base of the new amphitheatre was also enclosed with drystone walling to protect the banks and create a natural stage behind the granary. The stone work which looked so new just a few months ago is already beginning to green up with mosses and lichens with a few plants and ferns taking up residence.

In order to help the process along a little we have bought some ferns to plant in the crevices along the walls. It's very easy to get carried away when buying plants and to opt for larger specimens in order to add to the initial impact of the planting and this can be a good option. Often though it is better to choose smaller specimens and to let them grow into the spaces in your garden. Plants are usually grown in peat or composts based on light organic matter which is usually quite different from the local soil environment they will be exposed to when planted out into open ground. This can mean it actually takes much longer for larger plants to establish in the new environment. In this case we needed small plants in order to physically fit them into the gaps in the stonework. We opted for plants in 9cm pots and took time to check the size of the rootball to make sure they would be suitable.

We chose three different ferns to use in the walls, we wanted to have a certain amount of variety whilst attempting to create the impression that communities of ferns had naturally developed. We chose ferns that would be found in walls and hedgerows in this area. It is always worth noting plants that grow wild in your area and use the information when planning design elements of your garden that are intended to look natural.

We chose the Maidenhair spleenwort (Adiantum trichomanes), Harts Tongue fern (Asplenium scolopendrium) and The common Polypody (Polypody vulgare) which grows on the moss on trees and on walls in cornwall and should hopefully appreciate the damp welsh climate.

To plant them we got down into the stream bed and looked for suitable crevices; we have tried not to plant the ferns too low as the stream level fluctuates with rainfall and we don't want our new plants to be washed away after the first big storm! The planting is fairly straightforward; it's important to pack the rootball firmly into the base of the crevice while trying not to damage the roots. I tended to squash the rootball into the approximate shape before attempting to insert it into the walls. Once the fern is firmly in the wall it is then important that it has some suitable media to get its root into; in an older established wall soil will have filtered down into the cracks between the stones but here because the walls are new we packed a little soil into the cracks around the fern to help the process along, a splash of water then settled the soil into the stones.

The next really important element is to try to get the spacing right between the plants, the human mind seems to be hardwired to create patterns and in order to get the naturally colonised look we are aiming for it was vital to be mindful of this. I'm hoping that over the winter the stones will continue to take on their new green sheen and that the ferns will grow and thrive and in time start to colonise the other unplanted crevices. The whole effect will soften the impact of the stone work while adding another layer of detail to the garden. 

Words: Steve Lannin, Gardener at Allt-y-bela

Photographs: Britt Willoughby Dyer

A collection of three ferns ready for planting